Saturday, 10 May 2014

Environmental aplications: Decontamination of ecosystems and repopulation of species in danger of extiction

Made by: Jaime Bárzano, Julio J. García, David E. Portela, Iván González, Álvaro Benito.


The main advance of genetic engineering is the ability to create new species from the combination of several existing genes, thus also combining its features, as crops with insect genes to develop insecticidal toxins or tomatoes with fish genes to delay wilting have long ceased to be science fiction to being a reality today.




Within the Genome project, which attempts to clone dead species such as woolly mammoths, has released a list of the main candidates for future cloning and so somehow revive some species

These are some of the species to which they try to give life again, and it is noteworthy that of all, a piece of DNA either in bones or in some key pieces to carry out this project.


An example of future repoblation from extinct species is the giant ground sloth reached 6 meters tall and is believed to weigh about 4 tons. Their extinction is relatively recent and some specimens found with hair, an excellent DNA samples, so you may get the genome of this giant is more, Dr. Hendrik Poinar of McMaster University in Canada, has extracted DNA from a sloth that was found fossilized dung. The difficulty is a suitable substitute as the closest relative is the three-toed sloth arboreal dwarf is compared. You might be able to provide the eggs with which to create the embryo, but breeding dwarf that the mother in question shortly.






This is a way of repopulating extinct species but it can also be used to repopulate species in danger of extinction.

There are currently thousands of animal species that are in danger of extinction, some more critical than others but, without intervention, finally end up losing. The cloning of living species, can mean hope for animals that would otherwise disappear.
  Since no mother or special cells are required, simply leukocytes, which are very easy to obtain, either from young or adult animals ..
Scientists have been thinking about the possibility of cloning danger of extinction species like the giant panda, ocelot, and cheetah, to avoid extinction in the future.

Four deep-freeze tanks contain an incredible collection of some of the rarest animals on the planet, such as pandas, California condors, and gray whale.


     Cloning of single trees

The community  of Madrid has managed to perpetuate the genetic heritage Than 40 unique
trees in the region through its cloning. they intend to preserve the genetic information of species that have survived for many years. Among the examples there yew elms and oaks.



Decontamination of ecosystems


Studying the cross talk between nonpathogenic organisms and their mammalian hosts represents an experimental challenge because these interactions are typically subtle and the microbial societies that associate with mammalian hosts are very complex and dynamic. A large, functionally stable, climax community of microbes is maintained in the murine and human gastrointestinal tracts. This open ecosystem exhibits not only regional differences in the composition of its microbiota but also regional differences in the differentiation programs of its epithelial cells and in the spatial distribution of its component immune cells. A key experimental strategy for determining whether “nonpathogenic” microorganisms actively create their own regional habitats in this ecosystem is to define cellular function in germ-free animals and then evaluate the effects of adding single or several microbial species. This review focuses on how gnotobiotics—the study of germ-free animals—has been and needs to be used to examine how the gastrointestinal ecosystem is created and maintained. Areas discussed include the generation of simplified ecosystems by using genetically manipulatable microbes and hosts to determine whether components of the microbiota actively regulate epithelial differentiation to create niches for themselves and for other organisms; the ways in which gnotobiology can help reveal collaborative interactions among the microbiota, epithelium, and mucosal immune system; and the ways in which gnotobiology is and will be useful for identifying host and microbial factors that define the continuum between nonpathogenic and pathogenic. A series of tests of microbial contributions to several pathologic states, using germ-free and ex-germ-free mice, are proposed.  

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